The most common cause of community acquired pneumonia is pneumococcus and empirical therapy for community acquired pneumonia should always include an antibiotic which is effective against local strains of pneumococcus. But the ideal way of treatment is to start with an antibiotic which is not resistant to local strains and send for blood culture and antibiotic sensitivity test. After the antibiotic sensitivity test report is available, the antibiotic can be changed if required or continued if it is sensitive to the pneumococcus.
Generally antibiotics for treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia can be given by oral route or by parenteral route. Commonly used oral antibiotics are amoxicillin (1 gram every 8 hourly), a quinolone such as levofloxacin (500 mg once a day) and Telithromycin (800 mg once a day). Parenteral treatment of pneumonia can be either by ampicillin (1-2 gram IV or intravenously every 6 hourly), ceftriaxone (1 gram IV once or twice a day), quinolone such as gatifloxacin (400 mg IV every 24 hours), Imipenem (500 mg IV every 6 hourly) etc.
How long pneumococcal pneumonia should be treated?
There is no clear cut guideline for optimal treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia. The duration of therapy is generally guided by the response of the patient to the antibiotic therapy. And in absence of a clear cut guideline most of the doctors treat pneumococcal pneumonia for 5-7 days. Most experienced physician’s advice to start treatment with parenteral therapy, followed by oral antibiotic and observation of the patient for not more than 5 days once fever subsides. In this way duration of treatment do not generally cross 5-7 days.
Nail fungus is an infection in either the fingernails or toenails, sometimes it can soften the nails or thicken them and can cause discoloration of the nails as well, nail fungus is one of the most difficult conditions to treat, and they often cause severe damage to the nails or even nail loss. Nail fungus is a contagious condition, so be very weary of what you are sharing with other people. There are three different types of nail fungus, the first being Distal subungual onychomycosis, then there is Proximal subungual onychomycosis and finally White superficial onychomycosis. As of right now, upwards of 20% of the world population is effected by either toe or nail fungus, senior citizens hold the majority of that percentage. I am going to discuss why older adults especially senior citizens are more effected by nail fungus then the younger individuals.
Senior citizens are more prone to nail fungus, especially toe nail fungus, for a few reasons, the same reasons are for younger individuals, but the fact of there age, most likely they will have the issues. A lot of senior citizens have circulation problems, the percentage of senior citizens that are diabetics and the fact that their immunity level is much lower than a younger individual can cause nail fungus in the toes and nails.
It is much harder for a senior citizen to prevent nail fungus, simply because as much as you take care of your health, you are still going to have certain issues that you can not help, circulation is a hard one and immunity like I mentioned earlier, vitamins should help a little bit. Some ways to try to prevent the fungus from growing is to not walk barefoot in places where other people have been, clean your shower or tub on a regular basis, don’t keep sweaty shoes or sweaty socks on, fungus loves to grow and stay on places that are constantly wet or moist. If a senior citizen follows a few steps like I mentioned, it could prevent them from getting nail fungus. There are ways to treat nail fungus if you are unsuccessful at preventing it, there are natural methods and prescription’s that your doctor can subscribe, just to name a few.
The best thing to do if you discover that you have some type of nail fungus is to treat it as soon as possible to prevent it to spread to other nails on you or someone else and possible loose your nails, especially for senior citizens since they are more effected by nail fungus.
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