Out of the three main types of dysmenorrhea, spasmodic dysmenorrhea is the most common type. It is said that almost half of adult female population suffer from varying degree of spasmodic dysmenorrhea at some time of their life. But only 10% of them will seek medical attention for the problem. It is generally taken that if a patient’s main problem is dysmenorrhea than it is spasmodic dysmenorrhea. This is because the main symptoms of other two types of dysmenorrhea are not dysmenorrhea but abdominal pain, menorrhagia etc.
The clinical symptoms of spasmodic dysmenorrhea are characteristic and the pain starts on the first day of menstrual bleeding, when severe excruciating lower abdominal pain is felt that last for a short time of approximately 30 minutes to one hour. This pain is severe and intermittent and spasmodic in nature and can lead to nausea, vomiting, fainting and collapse. Sometimes there may be mild shock if the pain is very severe. This initial severe pain of short duration is followed by less severe type of pain that is felt in the lower abdomen, pelvis and sometimes down in the antero-medial aspect of thigh. This pain usually lasts for less than 12 hours. Read more…
There are two natural forms of vitamin K and they are vitamin K1 and vitamin K2. Vitamin K1 is also known as phylloquinone and vitamin K2is also known as menaquinone. Phylloquinone can be converted to menaquinone in some organs in humans.
Sources of vitamin K1:
Vitamin K1 is found mainly in the dark green leafy vegetables like kale and spinach. Vitamin K is present in vegetable oils also and it is particularly rich in olive, canola, and soybean oils. Margarine and liver also contain good quantity of vitamin K1. Cow’s milk (60 micro gram /liter) is a richer source of Vitamin K than human milk (15 micro gram /liter).
Vitamin K2 is synthesized in the intestines by intestinal flora (bacteria), which can usually supply adequate quantity of vitamin Kin humans. Vitamin Kis stored in liver and adipose tissues (fat store) in humans. If antibiotics are taken for long term (usually more than a week), it can suppress the normal intestinal flora that are sources of vitamin K2 and can cause deficiency of vitamin K. Read more…
“Menstruation is the funeral process for the unfertilized ovum” is how some people explain the menstruation. If the fertilization occurs there is no menstruation for as long as the child is not born.
The beginning of menstruation in a woman is called menarche. In healthy women the menstruation starts between the ages of 12-14 years and persists throughout the reproductive life till menopause sets. The average duration of menstrual cycle is of 28 days and duration of blood flow is about 4-6 days. The length of menstrual cycle may be few days more or few days less than 28 days. The menopause sets normally between the ages of 45 to 52 years.
It is quite common for departures from the normal sequences that occur in women who are otherwise can be called healthy and for this minor departures are not considered pathological. Depending on racial factors, nutritional status, geographical conditions, environmental influences and indulgence of strenuous physical activity there may be minor variation in menstrual cycle and the age of onset of menarche. Read more…
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Congestive dysmenorrhea is premenstrual pain in lower abdomen or back and is generally seen among sedentary women. Congestive dysmenorrhea usually occur between three to five days (some times more than five days) before starting of menstruation and is always relieved by menstrual flow (pain goes away once menstruation starts).
Congestive dysmenorrhea should be regarded as a symptom of pelvic disease at first instance and there may be some pelvic abnormality in patient with congestive dysmenorrhea. Disease like pelvic adhesion, salpingo-oophoritis (inflammation of ovary and Fallopian tube), parametritis etc almost always produce congestive dysmenorrhea and this may be due to hyperaemic ovaries and covered by adhesions from inflammatory lesions. These lesions become tense during premenstrual period of menstrual cycle and cause pain. Congestive dysmenorrhea is also common symptom of certain diseases like myomas, adenomyoma, acquired retroversion of the uterus, chocolate cyst of ovaries etc. But all the patient of congestive dysmenorrhea does not have an organic disease and an example of congestive dysmenorrhea without an organic disease is premenstrual tension or premenstrual congestion syndrome.
Some patients with congestive dysmenorrhea get symptoms (pain and discomfort) referred to one of the iliac fossa usually left iliac fossa. Pain and discomfort is usually accompanied by disturbance in bowel habit (generally constipation and rarely diarrhea) and flatulence distension of abdomen (upper colon) which is due to spasm of some part of colon. Colon is palpable as a tender part of intestine in this situation. Diagnosis can be confirmed by barium enema and radiology. Frequently laxatives are taken with the mistaken idea that purgation will relieve the spasm but in reality it aggravates the condition.
Women suffering from Congestive Dysmenorrhea may be able to take certain medications for the pain and cramps associated with the condition. Any women who meet the criteria and qualify for this prescription medication should seriously consider obtaining it. These pharmacies are relatively new and they offer a great deal of convenience to those who are prescribed to a vast assortment of potentially life-saving medications. The fact that the medicine is delivered straight to the patient’s home is a major advantage as it reduces the chances that one would forget to take their daily dose.
The right management of this type of congestive dysmenorrhea is correct diet (avoiding carbohydrates), avoid purgatives and some anti spasmodic medicines that acts on bowel like Buscopan. These patients of congestive dysmenorrhea should be encouraged to do regular exercise as the patients are generally sedentary office worker.