Fibromyalgia is something you know all about. The weakness, the pain, and the chronic fatigue are getting to you. You’ve tried drugs, or you’ve been told that they’ll help. You’re skeptical. While there is no known cure for this illness, there are things you can do to try and ease the pain.
Vitamin D, called “the sunshine vitamin,” is known to be low in many people with fibromyalgia. According to doctor Laura J Martin, contributor for WebMD, not getting enough vitamin D in your system may be linked to chronic pain. A study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2009 showed that vitamin D levels are really low in the majority of people living in the U.S.
Some experts believe that, in some people, it may trigger some symptoms of fibromyalgia. To get the benefit of sun exposure, you will need to go outside when the UV index is high (i.e. greater than “3”), since UVB light is what is responsible for vitamin D production. The UVB light hits your skin, and your body starts converting cholesterol to the hormone we call “vitamin D.” Read more…
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Drug addiction is a social evil, which affect more or less all the nations in this world, from richest nation to the poorest nation. Although the degree of the problem of drug addiction may vary from place to place as well as the drug to which individuals are addicted. In some place heroine may be the drug of addiction and in some other place it may be marijuana. But whatever may be the drug of addiction, the effect of drug addiction to the addict and family and society as a whole is mostly similar. Drug addiction disturbs the harmony and peace in any society and more to the family and friends of the addict.
It is essential to treat (de-addict) a drug addict appropriately, with care, so that drug addict can lead a life of dignity after de-addiction. It is important to treat the drug addiction with care as treatment of drug addiction is very different from other common ailments of body or health problems. A drug addict after successful de-addiction may become drug addict again if after treatment care is not taken care of with appropriate vocational rehabilitation and if drug addict is not counseled as required.
Narconon drug rehab is such a drug de-addiction program that provides their skilled drug de-addiction service across the United States as well as in other neighboring countries such as Canada and in Western Europe. You can get Narconon program wherever you are in United States, be it in California or be it in Hawaii. Narconon drug rehab program provide similar quality service in all its Narconon centers, wherever it may be located.
Narconon drug rehab program is a residential drug de-addiction program. The drug de-addiction method used at Narconon is unique and very successful. Although all the Narconon drug rehab centers are independent, the treatment (de-addiction) used for drug de-addiction is same in all the centers.
Narconon is a non profit non Government organization with the aim of eradicating drug addiction and drug abuse. The methods used mainly are educating people about ill effects drug addiction can cause to individual (drug addict) and society, rehabilitation after de-addiction and by prevention.
It is estimated that the number of drug addicts in United States alone is more than 22 millions. It is a huge task to treat (de-addiction) these drug addicts. Narconon has taken the task of drug addiction treatment and doing its job since it was established and will continue to do so.
Fungus infects nails and more commonly toe nails (less frequently finger nails). Fungal infection of nails may be very difficult to treat properly for complete cure. Fungal infection of nails (both toe nails and finger nails) begins as a white or yellow spot under the tip of fingernail or toenail. The infected nail/nails may become discolored, thick and have crumbling edges, as the fungal infection spreads to the deeper into nail. The condition may become painful, which prompt most patients to seek medical attention. The infection may also recur after successful treatment, especially if you continue to get exposed to conditions favorable for fungus growth and infection such as warm, moist conditions.
There are several different forms of treatment of fungal infection of nails; including over-the-counter medications antifungal nail creams and ointments, although they are not very effective. Ideally the over-the-counter antifungal medications should be avoided, as they can not be relied upon, for a complete cure.
The antifungal antibiotics are very effective in curing and eliminating the fungal infection of nails, although they can do little to prevent re-infection. The most effective antifungal antibiotics for treatment of fungal infection of nails are terbinafine (available as Lamisil) and itraconazole (available as Sporanox). These antifungal antibiotics are taken orally and highly effective for complete cure.
The oral antifungal antibiotics are used when patient has certain medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus, history of cellulites, or if the infection is severe and unlikely to be cured by topical agents.
Other treatment options in fungal infection of nails include topical medications (if the fungal infection is mild to moderate severity), surgery (for extremely severe and painful conditions) etc.
Infection of toe nails with fungus is a common health problem across the globe. Treatment of fungal infection of nail (including toenail) is not easy and need use of systemic anti-fungal antibiotics, which are potentially toxic with some serious side effects. The systemic anti-fungal antibiotics has to be used for long duration (may require treatment for 4-8 weeks) for complete cure of toe nail fungal infection. The administration of systemic anti-fungal antibiotics for long duration increases the risk of serious side effects.
Many individuals do not want to accept the risk of serious side effects of systemic anti-fungal antibiotics (although the risk is not high) and search for alternative solution to treat and cure infection of toe nails with fungus. For these types of individuals, the tea tree oil can be very helpful in treating adequately the infection of toe nails with fungus without the risk of serious side effects, which are associated with use of systemic anti-fungal antibiotics for cure of toenail fungal infection.
These days many doctors trained in Western Medicine (medical graduates) are also prescribing the use of tea tree oil for treatment and cure of toenail fungal infection to patients who do not want to take systemic anti-fungal antibiotics due to risk of side effects (or simply they do not want it) and some doctors are prescribing the tea tree oil for treatment of toenail fungal infection even before giving anti-fungal antibiotics. The number of doctors prescribing tea tree oil for treatment that can cure toenail fungal infection is only growing.
If you have fungal infection of your toe nails, do not worry if you are doubtful about the use of anti-fungal antibiotics, because there is a highly effective alternative cure for toenail fungal infection.
The most common cause of community acquired pneumonia is pneumococcus and empirical therapy for community acquired pneumonia should always include an antibiotic which is effective against local strains of pneumococcus. But the ideal way of treatment is to start with an antibiotic which is not resistant to local strains and send for blood culture and antibiotic sensitivity test. After the antibiotic sensitivity test report is available, the antibiotic can be changed if required or continued if it is sensitive to the pneumococcus.
Generally antibiotics for treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia can be given by oral route or by parenteral route. Commonly used oral antibiotics are amoxicillin (1 gram every 8 hourly), a quinolone such as levofloxacin (500 mg once a day) and Telithromycin (800 mg once a day). Parenteral treatment of pneumonia can be either by ampicillin (1-2 gram IV or intravenously every 6 hourly), ceftriaxone (1 gram IV once or twice a day), quinolone such as gatifloxacin (400 mg IV every 24 hours), Imipenem (500 mg IV every 6 hourly) etc.
How long pneumococcal pneumonia should be treated?
There is no clear cut guideline for optimal treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia. The duration of therapy is generally guided by the response of the patient to the antibiotic therapy. And in absence of a clear cut guideline most of the doctors treat pneumococcal pneumonia for 5-7 days. Most experienced physician’s advice to start treatment with parenteral therapy, followed by oral antibiotic and observation of the patient for not more than 5 days once fever subsides. In this way duration of treatment do not generally cross 5-7 days.
The causative agent for syphilis is Treponema pallidum, a spirochete. Syphilis is still fairly common disease (it is a sexually transmitted disease), despite presence of very effective antibiotics such as penicillin. At present globally more than 10 million people contact syphilis, annually. But there is a sharp decline of more than 95% in the past 50 years in the incidence of syphilis after advent of penicillin therapy to treat syphilis effectively.
The antibiotic of choice for treatment of syphilis is still penicillin for all the stages of syphilis. There is no reported incidence of resistance of Treponema pallidum to penicillin and hence still the drug of choice.
The CDC has given a guideline for treatment of syphilis in the year 2006 which is given below:
- Treatment of syphilis in Primary, secondary, and early latent phase of syphilis is Penicillin G benzathine (a single dose of 2.4 million units intramuscularly).
- Late latent phase, or cardiovascular involvement, CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) analysis should be done. If CSF is normal Penicillin G benzathine 2.4 million units intramuscularly weekly for 3 weeks. If CSF is abnormal it should be treated as neurosyphilis.
- Neurosyphilis, either symptomatic or asymptomatic is to be treated with aqueous penicillin G, 18–24 million units intravenously, given every 4 hourly (3–4 million units) or by continuous intravenous infusion. Alternative regimen is aqueous penicillin G procaine, 2.4 million units intramuscularly plus oral probenecid (500 mg every 6 hourly), both for 10–14 days.
- During pregnancy the treatment is same as with general population and according to stages.
- If patient is sensitive to penicillin, alternative includes Tetracycline hydrochloride (500 mg orally 4 times a day) or doxycycline (100 mg orally two times a day) for 14 days. Penicillin sensitive pregnant patients or patients with neurosyphilis have to be treated with penicillin after desensitization.
Epididymitis is a sexually transmitted infection in men. Most of the sexually transmitted epididymitis are acute and generally affect only on one side. Epididymitis causes pain, tenderness (pain on pressure to that part), swelling of epididymis and these symptoms may or may not be accompanied by signs and symptoms of urethritis (infection/inflammation of urethra).
What are the causative organisms of acute sexually transmitted epididymitis?
Most commonly the causative organisms of acute sexually transmitted epididymitis is Clamydia trachomatis and less commonly due to N. gonorrhea, especially in case of males below 35 years of age and sexually active.
Other conditions which should be differentiated from acute epididymitis are torsion of testis, trauma or due to tumor. In torsion of testis, which is a surgical emergency there is sudden onset of pain, the testicle is located in the scrotal sac, there is rotation of the epididymis from a posterior to an anterior position. In torsion of testis on Doppler study there is absence of blood flow to the testis. If symptoms do not subside after complete treatment with appropriate antibiotics, it suggests tumor or a granulomatous disease like tuberculosis. In trauma there is history of trauma.
Treatment of epididymitis:
The treatment of choice for acute epididymitis is ceftriaxone 250 mgs single dose intramuscularly followed by doxycycline 100 mg orally two times a day for next 10 days. This regime cures acute epididymitis due to Clamydia trachomatis as well as due to N. gonorrhea. Previously fluoroquinolones like ciprofloxacin were used, but at present not recommended due to emergence of resistance against fluoroquinolones. Levofloxacin is used sometimes if the causative organism of epididymitis is found to be Enterobacteriaceae, but it is not useful if epididymitis is due to other organisms.
Urethritis in men is caused by many different types of organisms and ideal treatment would be to identify the infecting organism and treat it with specific antibiotics highly effective in treating such infection. But it may not be possible in every cases of urethritis. In practice after diagnosing a case of urethritis in men, initially Gram’s staining is done, if it reveals gonococci, treatment for gonococci is done and if it does not reveal gonococci than treatment for NGU (nongonococcal urethritis) is done.
Treatment of gonococci infection:
Gonococci infection is treated with cephalosporin antibiotics. Among cephalosporin antibiotics ceftriaxone (125 mg intramuscularly single dose), cefpodoxime (400 mg orally single dose) or cefixime (400 mg orally single dose) can be used.
If no diagnostic test is available or performed in a patient with urethritis, than treatment regimen should be single-dose regimen for gonorrhea (as above) plus azithromycin (1 gram orally as single dose) or doxycycline (100 mg twice a day for 7 days) for treatment of clamidial infection (C. tracomatis) which occurs frequently in patients suffering from urethritis due to gonococci.
If gonococci are not demonstrated by Gram’s staining, it should be treated as NGU (nongonococcal urethritis) like azithromycin (1 g orally in a single dose) or doxycycline (100 mg orally 2 times a day for 7 days).
How to treat recurrent cases of urethritis?
Recurrent cases of urethritis should be treated with the same regimen as before if they did not comply with the earlier treatment or if they are reexposed to same infection. If the patient was treated appropriately previously, than an intraurethral swab specimen and a first-voided morning urine sample should be tested (culture of the swabs and antibiotic sensitivity done). If compliance to the initial treatment can be confirmed and reexposure excluded (in persistent cases) the treatment should include metronidazole or tinidazole (2 gram orally in a single dose) plus azithromycin (1 gram orally in a single dose).
N.B.- The sexual partner/partners (should be tested for gonorrhea and chlamydial infection) also should be treated with the same regimen as given to the male urethritis patient.
If the cause of indigestion can be identified, treatment of indigestion should be directed to correct the cause if possible. If the cause can not be identified, treatment has to be symptomatic and based on general principle of management.The common causes of indigestion are GERD (gastro-esophageal acid reflux disease) and functional dyspepsia (can not be treated satisfactorily unlike GERD).
Treatment of GERD:
Treatment of gastro-esophageal acid reflux disease should be started with PPI (proton pump inhibitor) drugs like omeprazole, pentoprazole, lansoprazole etc. PPIs are the first line and most effective drugs in treatment of GERD. Less potent but useful drugs are histamine H2 antagonists such as cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine etc. and these drugs are generally used for treatment of mild to moderate GERD. If GERD is severe, proton pump inhibitors must be used and for very long duration. Patient can be put on histamine H2 antagonists such as cimetidine, ranitidine if treatment with PPI is giving good response. Combination therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and an H2 antagonist are not required but has been proposed for some refractory cases.
Eradication of H. pylori may also be required and helpful in many cases of indigestion as H. pylori is one of the causative factors of peptic ulcer and peptic ulcer is a common cause of indigestion. Many combination drugs are available for eradication of H. pylori. Most of the combinations include 10–14 days of a proton pump inhibitor with 2 antibiotics like metronidazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin (any two of these three antibiotics). Eradication of H. pylori infection is associated with reduced prevalence of GERD, especially in the elderly patients.
Some general principles of treatment of indigestion should be followed. For example if the cause (e.g. GERD, lactase deficiency, biliary colic etc.) of indigestion can be identified, the therapy should be directed towards the cause of indigestion. If the cause can not be identified, than treatment should be directed towards symptomatic relief of the patient for improving patients’ health.
General principle of treatment of indigestion:
For mild indigestion, reassurance may be the only intervention needed, (especially mentioning the patient of indigestion that a careful evaluation revealed no serious organic disease). Medicines that can cause acid reflux or dyspepsia should be avoided and stopped (if already using) if possible. Patients with GERD (gastro-esophageal reflux disease) should limit alcohol, caffeine, chocolate, and tobacco use because of the effects of these substances on the LES (lower esophageal sphincter) is usually relaxing, which causes easy acid reflux to esophagus. Other measures like consumption of a low-fat diet, avoiding snacks before bedtime, and elevating the head of the bed should be taken as general measure.
Specific therapies for organic disease (if present) should be offered when possible and if the disease can be identified. Examples of specific therapies are surgery, which is appropriate in disorders like biliary colic, while diet changes are indicated for lactase deficiency or celiac disease. Some illnesses such as peptic ulcer disease may be cured by specific medical regimens. However, as most indigestion is caused by GERD or functional dyspepsia, medications that reduce gastric acid, stimulate motility, or blunt gastric sensitivity are indicated.